On August 17, the decentralized cyber hacking group Anonymous  attacked Nicaragua’s Health Ministry archives. The 400 leaked  files revealed a surplus of 6,245 positive COVID-19 cases in Nicaragua that were previously unknown to the public. The announcement  was made on Twitter by a self-identified Anonymous member, Lorian Syrano.
Nicaraguans on Twitter replied enthusiastically to the hack through the hashtag #OpNicaragua . Since the beginning of the pandemic, Nicaragua's authorities have been singled out for their opacity  about COVID-19 data and its refusal  to introduce a lockdown.
Anonymous revealed  that in May, the known number of positive tests for COVID-19 was 98.80 percent higher than what the official Ministry reported: 1332 cases instead of 16. The tendency continued for the following months. By July 24, it appears that a total of 6,245 positive cases were left publicly unreported.
It also appears that the rate of positive cases per test is one of the highest  in the world, with nearly 56 percent  of tests returning positive for COVID-19. The former director of epidemiology at the Health Ministry, Álvaro Ramírez, explained in an interview  with Confidencial that it is due to the fact that the tests are primarily performed on hospitalized people or those presenting symptoms.
Already before the leak, suspicion about the accuracy of official COVID-19 data was growing. For example, a volunteer citizen observatory made up of medical experts, researchers, engineers, computer scientists and communicators, reported  that the number of suspected COVID-19 related deaths is nearly twenty times higher than the data shared  by the Health Ministry.
For Álvaro Ramírez, the leaked archives confirm that the government was hiding the data on purpose. He said  :
…el hecho de que esta información estaba ahí, que llegaba todos los días a la presidencia, y que por cualquier razón, que no la vamos a entender fácilmente, ellos (Daniel Ortega y Rosario Murillo) decidieron mentir a la población, y cambiar los datos, y poner datos diferentes.
…the fact that this information was there, that it came every day to the presidency, and that for whatever reason, which we will not easily understand, they (Daniel Ortega and Rosario Murillo) decided to lie to the population, and change the data, and put different data.
The government, led by President Daniel Ortega and his wife and Vice-President Rosario Murillo, had affirmed in May that people were suffering from pneumonia instead of COVID-19. In May and June, alarming reports about hidden burials multiplied . Journalist Lucydalia Baca Castellón hopes  that the conditionality of international loans will soon force the Nicaraguan government to take “responsible and transparent” measures with regards to COVID-19.
On August 16, Anonymous shared a teaser to the leaked files:
Greetings to the Dictatorial regime of Ortega. We may have been off the radar for a while, but our fight for freedom has never stopped.
— CyberWare – Anonymous (@LiteMods) August 16, 2020 
Anonymous, like many government opponents, commentators  and Nicaraguan media , refers to Ortega's government as “dictatorial” due to its authoritarian traits , censorship  practices, and corruption . According to the Interdisciplinary Group of Independent Experts, Ortega committed crimes against humanity  against political opponents during anti-government uprisings in 2018.
On August 21, Lorian Synaro  shared the link where they claim that the entire database of the Nicaraguan Health Ministry and other 400 files can be downloaded:
The Nicaraguan ministry of health (MINSA) has been hacked! Tons of private data, documents and the whole database leaked! The government lies will not remain secret anymore.
Download —> https://t.co/e5knY4mw0y 
*Read post below pic.twitter.com/SSxTWK9Qll 
— Lorian Synaro 🍀 (@LorianSynaro) August 21, 2020 
The Central bank of Nicaragua, the ministry of economy and the UAF government website have all been taken #Offline !https://t.co/EbKGPTs3qM https://t.co/dBiIKebLaw https://t.co/tomII3AMat  pic.twitter.com/n8OOZqnjaC 
— Lorian Synaro 🍀 (@LorianSynaro) May 14, 2020 
El 19 Digital, the largest digital news media with close ties to the government, has not reported  on any of these incidents, even though reports abound  on other Ministry of Health's latest news. The Ministry of Health did not respond to the attacks, either.