Stories about Russia
The push for greater online censorship is part of the country's "sovereign internet" strategy which seeks to cement centralised state control over internet infrastructure and online spaces.
The effects of Russia’s ‘foreign agent’ legislation against media and civil society have been direct and deeply troubling. They are now, in effect, deemed ‘enemies of the people’.
Ahead of Russia's parliamentary elections on September 17-19, the state's crackdown on opposition groups, circumvention tools and internet infrastructure has escalated to a fever pitch.
Drew Sullivan, OCCRP's co-founder and editor-in-chief, said their work in Russia at the moment would do local reporters "more harm than good."
Antijob, an online database of anonymous complaints about Russian employers, has been blocked by censors following a defamation case brought by a Moscow real estate firm.
The data localization law, adopted in 2015, requires all internet companies processing Russian users' data to store such data on servers physically located inside Russia.
According to Taichimbekov, the Kazakh state has been "sourcing Russian individuals who speak out in favor of banning Russian television, banning Russian language, excluding it from the Constitution."
"As for the list of foreign agents, by now it has so many decent people and publications on it that not to be on this list is simply indecent."
Navalny's main website, navalny.com, as well as over 40 other webpages for Navalny's national network of campaign offices were added to Roskomnadzor's state registry for blocked websites.
On July 19, after its website was blocked, Team 29 announced it was shutting down its operations in order to protect its staff and clients from possible criminal prosecution.
Unlike street protests, which require prior authorisation from local authorities, online rallies aren't technically subject to the same restrictions.
Supporters of DOXA journal have called the charges against its editors "preposterous" and demanded that "all harassment of students immediately cease."
Cellebrite, an Israeli software company known for making tools used to extract data from smartphones, has announced it will halt sales to Russian and Belarus state bodies and law enforcement.
Russian internet regulator Roskomnadzor says it is prepared to block Twitter completely if the platform continues to ignore its requests to take down content flagged as illegal.
Experts believe that the most likely reason for the new self-censorship legislation is the state's desire to curtail the growing discontent and protest activity in the country.
''Even as the platforms have grown and spread around the world, the center of gravity of these debates continues to revolve around D.C. and San Francisco.''
Data publicly provided by Facebook about the adverts' reach indicate they have traveled far beyond North Macedonia, activists warn.
"Russia is not seeking to isolate itself from the world, rather to create a precedent which other states aspiring to sovereignty over their segments of the internet can follow," says researcher Alena Epifanova.
The most recent annual report by Russian NGOs Agora and Roskomsvoboda draws some troubling conclusions about what lies in store for the RuNet in years to come.
On the surface, China and Russia share much when it comes to digital governance. But their crackdowns on cyberspace also have important differences, says professor Maria Repnikova